### I. Introduction

One of the most basic things one usually needs to know when using R, is how does one get data into R so that you can analyze it. This page will give you some basic functions that you can use to simply get data into R.

### II. Entering Data Using "c"

There are a variety of ways to get data into R, but if your dataset is small, manually entering the data is rather straightforward using the **c() **function. **It’s easiest just to think that c stands for combine.**

Enter the following dataset into R: {11, 14, 22, 15}. We will label the data *my.data*

**R CODE**

my.data=c(11,14,22,15) #this code will create your dataset and assign it the variable name my.data my.data #If you want to know what a variable holds, you must ask for it by name

**R OUTPUT**

[1] 11 14 22 15

Common Mistakes:

1. Forgetting to use c

x=(1,2,3) ## INCORRECT x=c(1,2,3) ### CORRECT

2. Missing a comma while entering data

x=(1 2,3) ## INCORRECT x=c(1,2,3) ### CORRECT

### III. Using ":"

Using “**:**“, one is able to quickly create a sequence of numbers, incremented by 1.

Create a list of numbers 1 through 5, assign the name *stats.data* to your data.

**R INPUT**

stats.data=1:5 #this code will create your sequence of data from 1 to 5, by increments of 1 stats.data # if you wish to view the data, don't forget to ask for the data by name

**R OUTPUT**

[1] 1 2 3 4 5

Create a list of numbers 5 through -6, assign the name *decreasing.data* to your data.

**R INPUT**

decreasing.data=5:-6 #this code will create your sequence of data from 5 to -6, by increments of 1 decreasing.data # if you wish to view the data, don't forget to ask for the data by name

**R OUTPUT**

[1] 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6

### IV. Using seq() Function

The **seq(from, to, by) **function creates a sequence of numbers between any two numbers incremented by a specific number. Also, The **seq(from, to, length.out) **function creates a sequence of numbers with a specific length between any two numbers.

Create a sequence of numbers from 1 through 3, with increments of 0.5, save as *z.*

**R CODE**

z=seq(1,3,0.5) # seq(low.number, high.number, increment.size) z

**R OUTPUT**

[1] 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Create a sequence of numbers with length 6 from 0 through 12.

**R CODE**

seq(0, 12, length.out=6)

**R OUTPUT**

[1] 0.0 2.4 4.8 7.2 9.6 12.0